Footnotes

  1. U.S. Const. amend. I.
  2. David A. French, et al., FIRE’s Guide to Free Speech on Campus 27 (2005) [hereinafter French, Free Speech]; David A. French, FIRE’s Guide to Religious Liberty on Campus 13 (2002) [hereinafter French, Religious Liberty].
  3. French, Religious Liberty, supra note 2, at 24.
  4. Id.
  5. Id.
  6. Id. at 28.
  7. Id. at 37.
  8. Id. at 40.
  9. Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47, 52 (1919).
  10. French, Free Speech, supra note 2, at 20, 27, 29–30, 39–40, 95–98.
  11. Id. at 100–05.
  12. Id. at 101.
  13. Id. at 103.
  14. U.S. Const. amend. I.
  15. Thomas v. Collins, 323 U.S. 516, 539 (1945). 
  16. Id. at 530.
  17. French, Religious Liberty, supra note 2, at 13; see also NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449, 460 (1958).
  18. French, Religious Liberty, supra note 2, at 13.
  19. Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640, 647 (2000).
  20. Id. at 648.
  21. U.S. Const. amend. I (emphasis added).
  22. French, Religious Liberty, supra note 2, at 6–7.
  23. Id. at 17–18.
  24. Id. at 19–20.
  25. Employment Div. v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872, 877 (1990) (citations omitted). 
  26. Id.
  27. French, Religious Liberty, supra note 2, at 30.
  28. Id. at 11–12.
  29. Id. at 15.
  30. Id. at 12–13.
  31. Id. at 14.
  32. Id. at 30.
  33. Bd. of Regents of Univ. of Wis. Sys. v. Southworth, 529 U.S. 217 (2000).
  34. Rosenberger v. Rector & Visitors of Univ. of Va., 515 U.S. 819 (1995).
  35. Id. at 835.
  36. Southworth, 529 U.S. 217.
  37. Id. at 233.
  38. Ramirez v. Arlequin, 447 F.3d 19, 22 (1st Cir. 2006).
  39. NAACP v. Button, 371 U.S. 415, 433 (1963).
  40. Constantine v. Rectors & Visitors of George Mason Univ., 411 F.3d 474, 500 (4th Cir. 2005).
  41. Rutan v. Republican Party of Ill., 497 U.S. 62, 76 n.8 (1990).
  42. Rosenberger, 515 U.S. at 835.
  43. Bd. of County Comm’rs v. Umbehr, 518 U.S. 668, 680–81 (1996).
  44. Connick v. Myers, 461 U.S. 138, 142 (1983); see also Umbehr, 518, U.S. at 680–81.
  45. See Connick, 461 U.S. at 143–47.
  46. Id. at 146.
  47. Piver v. Pender County Bd. of Educ., 835 F.2d 1076, 1079 (4th Cir. 1987) (citations omitted).
  48. See Ridpath v. Bd. of Governors Marshall Univ., 447 F.3d 292, 316 (4th Cir. 2006).
  49. See Pickering v. Bd. of Educ. of Twp. High Sch., 391 U.S. 563, 566, 572–73 (1968).
  50. Piver, 835 F.2d at 1079; accord Connick, 461 U.S. at 148. 
  51. Keyishian v. Bd. of Regents of Univ. of N.Y., 385 U.S. 589, 603 (1967) (citations and quotations omitted).
  52. Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Roscoe (Dec. 27, 1820), in 15 Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 303 (Andrew A. Lipscomb & Albert Ellery Bergh ed., 1903–04).
  53. Keyishian, 385 U.S. at 603 (internal quotations and citations omitted).
  54. Garcetti v. Ceballos, 547 U.S. 410, 421 (2006).
  55. Id. at 425; id. at 438–39 (Souter, J., concurring).

 

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